A large low-branching tree forming an upright, oval to
rounded crown. Widely planted as a yard tree. Brought
over from Europe and central Asia.
Leaves and Buds
Bud Arrangement – Alternate.
Bud Color – Yellow to reddish-orange with a silky down.
Bud Size – 1/5 inch long, rounded at apex, and flattened
against the twig with a single, cap-like bud scale.
Leaf Type and Shape – Simple, lanceolate, acuminate,
Leaf Margins – Finely-serrate.
Leaf Surface – Smooth above, glaucous and silky beneath.
Leaf Length – 1½ to 4 inches.
Leaf Width – 1/4 to 5/8 inch.
Leaf Color – Bright green on top, silvery-gray below.
Flowers and Fruits
Flower Type – Catkins 3/4 to 2½ inches long.
Flower Color – Yellowish-green.
Fruit Type – Capsule, seed attached to cottony hairs.
Fruit Color – Brownish-white.
Growth Habit – Large, upright pyramidal, becoming
Texture – Fine, summer; medium, winter.
Crown Height – 40 to 60 feet.
Crown Width – 30 to 45 feet.
Bark Color – New growth reddish-orange, becoming
Root System – Fibrous spreading.
Soil Texture – Performs best on deep moist loams,
or along stream beds and wetlands.
Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0 – Adaptable to high pH soils.
Windbreak Suitability Groups – 1, 1K, 2, 2K, 2H.