Soil

Rich soil full of organic matter such as compost and well rotted manure.

Like most nut trees, almonds require deep, well draining soil. They will not tolerate waterlogged soil and will develop root rot as a result. Avoid planting in heavy clay unless the soil has been amended. Heavy soils can be improved by incorporating gypsum, organic matter and by mounding the soil before planting to improve drainage. 

Position

Sunny position

Frost

Yes, however early spring frosts can damage blooms. 

Spacing

Space plants at least 6 metres apart.

Planting

Late autumn or early spring is the best time to transplant most dormant plants. Plants, with the exception of bare-root, can be transplanted at anytime between when the ground thaws and when it freezes (so anytime if you are in a frost free climate). However, if transplanting in the heat of summer, you'll need to be diligent in watering and provide extra shade for your plant in the first few weeks after transplanting.

Dig a hole 2-3 times the width of the root ball. The hole should allow the plant to sit at the same level in the soil as it was previously. Fill the hole with soil ensuring that the crown of the plant, where the roots and stem meet, is level with the soil surface.

Plant out in the early morning or evening and/or on an overcast day. Avoid planting at peak sun times or on windy days, this will allow your plants to settle in comfortably and protect them from windburn and sunburn. 

Feeding

Top-dress the soil around the tree with well-rotted organic matter in spring, along with a balanced organic fertiliser. Add a 2-3 inch layer of mulch around the tree up to the drip line to retain moisture (be careful not to pile mulch against the tree trunk as this may lead to trunk rot and disease). 

Harvesting

Almonds begin ripening at the top of the tree and work their way downward. Harvest your almonds when about 95 percent of the hulls on the tree have split open, exposing the shells inside.

Pests

Mites, Birds, Pavement Ant, Leafrollers, Stink Bugs, Caterpillars, Borers, Scale.

Diseases

Hull Rot, Crown Gall, Shot Hole and Rust, Almond Brownline and Decline, Almond Kernel Shrivel, Almond Leaf Scorch, Alternaria Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Brown Rot Blossom Blight, Verticillium Wilt

Notes

At the end of the season, prune the tree in order to remove old or unproductive wood. Open up the center to let light and air in by removing any overlapping branches, this will help prevent disease.  

Troubleshooting

Most almond varieties are self-incompatible, this means that they cannot pollinate themselves. For nut production, at least two trees from different varieties will need to be planted to ensure an overlapping bloom time.  

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